Program September 2016-July 2017:
The seminar is held roughly once a month at the University of Bordeaux (Carreire-Segalen campus, 146 rue Léo Saignat), usually on Tuesdays, from 12pm to 1pm.
Our first speaker (September 2016) will be Peter Godfrey-Smith (City University of New York, USA & HPS, University of Sydney, Australia), Individuality and Minimal Cognition.
Program September 2015-July 2016:
We are used to thinking of cancer as a breakdown in function. Cancer is often defined, in fact, as a “failure” to control cell birth and death, and a disease of “disorganized” growth, due largely to mutations that affect the regulation of the cell cycle, the control of normal cell division, replication, etc.. Yet, we also know that selection can (and sometimes does) operate on more than one level of organization. This can occur both sequentially, and simultaneously.
Some traits are, as a consequence, byproducts of selection at other levels of organization. In this talk, I argue that cancer progression depends, in part, on a cooption of organismic adaptations: cell signaling pathways that play roles in wound healing, & embryogenesis (Schedin, et. al., 2006; Weinberg, 2014). In this sense, cancer progression is a byproduct of natural selection at the organismal level. However, cancer may also be described as a process of natural selection, where selection is acting at the level of individual cells, and potentially also, cell lineages or whole populations (see, e.g., Greaves, et. al., 2010; Crespi and Summers, 2005). Moreover, cancer may be described as a process of niche construction: for, stromal and carcinoma cells cooperate in service of angiogensis, invasion, and metastasis (see, e.g., Egeblad, 2010, Merlo, et. al., 2006). These capacities may be described as traits or characters of the tumor (collective) as a whole, which together contribute to the tumor’s survival. Adopting Queller and Strassman’s (2009) sense of “organismality,” where collectives are more or less “cooperative” and approach the paradigmatic “organism” as a matter of degree, then, one could thus speak of advanced tumors as proto-organisms. This talk will explore the consequences of thinking about cancer’s dynamics from a multi-level evolutionary perspective. The aim is to explore the scope and limitations of this analogy, in the spirit of Campbell (1920), Achinstein (1964), Spector, (1965), and Hesse’s (1966) arguments for the fruitful use of analogy and metaphor in science.
– March 22nd, 2016: Maureen O’Malley (University of Bordeaux; previously: University of Sydney), Why Philosophy of Microbiology?
Attention! Exceptionnellement, la séance commencera à 12h au lieu de 12h30 (The seminar will start at noon, instead of 12:30pm)
- Link to Video of this talk: Video O’Malley
- Link to PDF Presentation of Maureen’s talk: Why Philosophy of Microbiology?
- Short abstract: Microbes have only recently become the objects of sustained philosophical attention. I will discuss some of the reasons why philosophers now find microbes and microbiology interesting, and why philosophy of microbiology might be a worthwhile activity.
- Link to PDF presentation: Chiu, Host-Microbiota Symbiosis
- Video of the talk: Video Chiu
- Abstract: I will distinguish between three types of interactionist reactions to internalist or externalist theories. These theories assign specific theoretical roles to internal and external factors, respectively. A “balanced” interactionist balances the relative weight of internal and external factors without changing their respective roles. An “extension” interactionist reassigns the roles to both factors. A “transformative” interactionist rejects the original theoretical framework, re-organizing internal and external factors under a new alternative. Examples will be drawn from major debates in evolutionary biology, developmental biology, and cognitive science. I then suggest that there could be three alternative interpretations to the “host-microbiota” holobiont/superorganism/metaorganism.
- Slides of the talk: Slides Horvath.
Discovered in 2007, CRISPR-Cas is a bacterial immunity system directed against nucleic acids, notably viral DNA. In this system, the immunological memory is built through the acquisition of short viral DNA sequences into the chromosome of the bacterial host, within peculiar regions called CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats). In the interference stage, these sequences are transcribed into small RNA molecules named crRNAs, that are used by Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins to recognize and inactivate any foreign DNA showing sequence complementary to the crRNAs. The ability of certain Cas proteins, notably Cas9, to be directed by a short RNA towards a DNA target and to cleave it at a precise position has been diverted and transformed in 2012 into a simple and efficient tool for genome editing. Since then, the Cas9 tool has been applied successfully to genome modification of numerous organisms, including microorganisms, plants, animals, and humans. This presentation will focus on the milestone and fundamental discoveries about CRISPR-Cas systems, and on some of their applications.
- Links to know in more detail Philippe Horvath’s role in the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas system:
- Location: Campus Carreire, Amphi. 12
- Big crowd to listen to Philippe Horvath’s talk:
- Video of the talk: Video Weber
Philosophers of biology have recently been debating to what extent such nucleic acids that are said to carry genetic information (i.e., DNA or mRNA) really play a special role in development. A recent attempt to defend such a special role consists in arguing that nucleic acid is what makes an actual difference (as opposed to potential differences) to the amino acid sequence of proteins. However, this is not sufficient as there are often other actual-difference makers involved in protein synthesis, for example, splicing or post-translational modification mechanisms. For this reasons, it has been suggested that what distinguishes nucleic acid is their causal specificity. Causal specificity has to do with the amount of control that interventions on the cause variable can exert on the effect variable. However, a quantitative measure of causal specificity can be used to show that in many cases the specificity of non-genetic causes is a full match to the genetic causes. In this talk, I will argue that what matters biologically is the causal specificity that inheres in possible interventions that are biologically normal, where biological normality is defined both in terms of what can happen in a population of organisms at a non-negligible probability and what is consistent with normal biological functioning of the rest of the organism. This kind of causal specificity is higher for genetic causes than for the (known) non-genetic causes.
- Location: salle TP – Visio 2. Plan d’accès à cette salle : Plan-acces-visio-CARREIRE
Stem cell models: cell identity, development, and levels of organization
- Slides of the talk: Slides Fagan
The concept of a stem cell is a peculiar one, uniting two very different
ideas. A cell is a well-characterized biological entity, observable via
relatively simple technology and clearly distinguished from its
environment and other cells by a bounding membrane. A stem is the
beginning of a process, the point of origin for something that is to be.
A stem cell, then, is both entity and process; a cell defined by what it
gives rise to rather than its observable traits. In this talk, I present
a minimal abstract model of the stem cell concept, and explore its
implications for key questions in philosophy of biology. The model
explicates the general definition of ³stem cell² as a cell that has both
the capacity to self-renew and the capacity to differentiate. After
presenting the model, I discuss three of its implications. (1) Stem cells
can be individuated only relative to particular experimental methods and
hypotheses, such that the concept in practice is diverse and
context-dependent. (2) Stem cell concepts involve substantive assumptions
about biological development, at organismal, cellular, and molecular
levels. The modeling approach offers a systematic framework for
representing and comparing these concepts, via the topology of lineage
trees. (3) The aforementioned assumptions about development have
implications for theories of cancer, in particular the idea of ³cancer
- Location: 1pm, salle de conférences de l’IBGC (directions)
Kith selection: simple theory, complicated amoebas and bacteria
Commentator: Johannes Martens (IHPST, CNRS & Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne)
The evolution of cooperation is well understood when the cooperators are relatives but perhaps less so when they are unrelated. We will explore two aspects of evolutionary interactions among non-relatives, which we call kith selection. On the theoretical side, we show how these interactions can be expressed in form exactly parallel Hamilton’s rule. On the empirical side, we describe a complex “farming” symbiosis between Burkholderia bacteria and Dictyostelid amoebas.
Location: Salle des conférences du Bâtiment Espace Santé (Map_Espace santé)
– June 6th 10am-12pm: Denis Walsh (University of Toronto, Canada)
Bibliothèque du service de Rhumatologie, 12e étage du Tripode, groupe hospitalier Pellegrin.
Rencontre avec l’auteur à propos de son livre : Organisms, Agency, and Evolution (2016)
La séminaire se tiendra en anglais.
What does a ‘global history’ of biology bring to us?
- Video of the talk: Video Morange
To write a global history of life sciences from Antiquity to extant research, from molecular biology to ecology and ethology is an impossible task, the promise to be inaccurate and wrong in many issues.
Nevertheless, the result is not without interest. It casts a new light on continuities and discontinuities in biological thought, and on the relations between biology and other scientific disciplines. It reveals the circulation of concepts and methods between biological subdisciplines, and between Society and biology. It shows the complex dynamics of biological transformations that gives biology its specific nature.
- Location: salle TP – Visio 2. Plan d’accès à cette salle : Plan-acces-visio-CARREIRE
Philosophical lessons learned from Galton’s statistical innovations about the nature of scientific explanation.
Salle de réunion FR TransBioMed (Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bât 1A, 2ème étage – Zone Nord – Case 53, 146, rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux cedex France)
– Date TBA: workshop dedicated to plants. Speakers: Quentin Hiernaux (Bruxelles) Sophie Gerber (INRA Bordeaux), Marie-Laure Loustau (INRA Bordeaux).
Past program (January-July 2015):
Mardi 13 Janvier, 12h30 à 14h (Site de Carreire, Amphi 6) :
Andreas Bikfalvi – ‘Variations, évolutions et métamorphoses de l’arbre vasculaire’ (discutant: Thomas Pradeu)
Mardi 10 Février, 12h30 à 14h (Site de Carreire, Amphi 6) :
Cédric Brun – ‘L’explication en neurosciences, mécanisme et réductionnisme?’ (discutant: Thomas Boraud)
Vendredi 20 Mars, de 14h à 15h30 (Salle de conférences du Centre de génomique fonctionnelle) :
Philippe Kourilsky – ‘Le jeu du hasard et de la complexité’
(discutant: Thomas Pradeu)
Lundi 20 Avril, de 12h30 à 14h (Site de Carreire, Amphi 6) :
Maël Lemoine – Comment définir la maladie?
(discutant à préciser)
Lundi 18 Mai, de 12h20 à 14h (Site de Carreire, Amphi 6) :
Nora Abrous (Titre à préciser)
(discutant: A.M. Ferner)
Lundi 8 juin, de 12h à 14h (Site de Carreire, Amphi 7) :
Thomas Boraud, Les neurosciences peuvent-elle étudier les processus de prise de décision sans tomber dans la néo-phrénologie?
(discutant: Cédric Brun)
Mardi 23 juin de 12h30 à 14h, (Salle de conférences du Centre de génomique fonctionnelle (site Carreire)) :
Jan Pieter Konsman, Titre à préciser
(discutant à préciser)
Jeudi 16 Juillet, de 12h30 à 14h (Site de Carreire, Amphi 6) :
Adam Ferner – Organic individuals